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River Class Torpedo-Boat Destroyers

 


HMAS Torrens
HMAS Torrens
The River Class was a class of six torpedo-boat destroyers. The design was based on a modified version of the British River-class destroyer, 13 of which were planned under the 1904 Naval Estimates, but were cancelled before orders were placed. The first batch of three ships was ordered for the Commonwealth Naval Forces in 1909, followed later by a second batch of three a few years later. All six vessels are named after Australian rivers.

Design and construction


In October 1905 the newly appointed Naval Officer Commanding the Commonwealth Naval Forces (the post-Federation amalgamation of the Australian colonial navies), Captain William Creswell, proposed a navy of three large cruiser-destroyers (capable of dealing with commerce raiders), plus 16 smaller destroyers and 15 torpedo boats for local defence.

The first instalment of the ambitious plan was the River-class, bids for which were received from British shipbuilders on 24 July 1907. A consortium of Fairfields and Dennys was chosen as the prime contractors, and the design was drawn by Prof. John H. Biles(GE) of Glasgow University, based on HMS Teviot, Yarrow's variant of the RN River Class.

The destroyers of this class had a displacement of 750 tons. The first three had a length overall of 246 feet (75 m), while the second three were longer at 250 feet 9 inches (76.43 m). They were powered by three oil-burning Yarrow boilers connected to Parsons turbines, which delivered 10,000 shaft horsepower (7,500 kW) to three propeller shafts. Cruising speed was 11.5 knots (21.3 km/h; 13.2 mph), giving the ship a range of 2,690 nautical miles (4,980 km; 3,100 mi), and maximum speed was 26 knots (48 km/h; 30 mph).

Each ship's company consisted of between 66 and 73 personnel, including five officers. The destroyers' main armament consisted of a single BL 4-inch Mark VIII naval gun, supplemented by three QF 12 pounder 12 cwt naval guns. They were also fitted with three .303-inch machine guns and three single 18-inch torpedo tubes.

The first three ships, Parramatta, Yarra and Warrego, were ordered on 6 February 1909. Another three ships, Huon, Swan, and Torrens, were ordered later.  On the advice of the British Admiralty, the ships were named after Australian rivers (one from each state), although the original intention of using rivers with Aboriginal name origins did not carry through to the second batch. Senator George Pearce requested that they instead be named after famous navigators, but was overruled by Prime Minister Alfred Deakin. Huon was originally to be named Derwent, but this was changed before launch to avoid confusion with the British E-class (formerly River-class) destroyer HMS Derwent.

Parramatta and Yarra were the first new ships launched for the Australian navy. After completion, the two vessels were temporarily commissioned into the Royal Navy for the delivery voyage to Australia, although they reverted to the control of the Commonwealth Naval Forces on arrival in Broome. Warrego, however, was built up to launch condition, then disassembled, transported to Australia by ship, and rebuilt at Cockatoo Island Dockyard: the reasoning behind this was to raise the standard of the Australian shipbuilding industry by giving Cockatoo Island hands-on experience in warship construction. The second batch of three warships were all built at Cockatoo Island.

Operational history


The first three destroyers were operating with the Australian fleet at the start of World War I. The three ships were assigned to the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force, and participated in the capture of German New Guinea.

After the conclusion of the campaign, the destroyers were assigned to home waters for a short period, then assigned to Malayan and surrounding waters until late 1916.

During August and September, the second group of River-class destroyers began relieving the ships of the first group from Malayan patrols, with Parramatta, Yarra, and Warrego returning to Australia.

Fate


All six ships of the class were disposed of by the 1930's. Three were sold for use as accommodation hulks (two to the NSW Penal Department, the third to Cockatoo Island Dockyard) and later sank. The other three were sunk as target ships. The bow and stern sections of HMAS Parramatta were recovered in 1973 and are preserved as memorials.
Name Ship Builder Laid down Launched Commissioned Decommissioned Fate
First group
Parramatta Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Company Limited, Govan, Glasgow 17 March 1909 9 February 1910 10 September 1910 20 April 1928 Hulk sold into private service, ran aground in 1934. Sections later salvaged for memorials.
Yarra William Denny & Brothers, Dumbarton 1909 9 April 1910 1 March 1911 10 May 1928 Broken up, hulk sunk as target in 1929
Warrego Laid down: Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Company Limited, Govan
Reconstructed from parts:
Cockatoo Dockyard, Sydney
December 1910 (Cockatoo) 4 April 1911 1 June 1912 19 April 1928 Used as accommodation at Cockatoo Island, sank in 1931
Second group
Huon Cockatoo Dockyard, Sydney 25 January 1913 19 December 1914 14 December 1915 7 June 1928 Broken up, hulk sunk as target in 1931
Swan Cockatoo Dockyard, Sydney 22 January 1913 11 December 1915 16 August 1916 15 May 1928 Hulk sold into private service, Sank under tow in 1934
Torrens Cockatoo Dockyard, Sydney 25 January 1913 28 August 1915 3 July 1916 19 July 1920 (to reserve) Broken up, hulk sunk as target in 1930